by Al McDowell
The motion of a galaxy away from Earth gives its light a longer wavelength. This “redshift” increases in proportion to galaxy velocity, which Hubble’s Law says is proportional to the distance of galaxies from Earth. This law applied to redshift data implies that the furthest galaxies we see are moving away from us at either nearly the speed of light or several times the speed of light, depending on whether you assume that Special Relativity is valid.
The website and books of astronomer Halton Arp show that many low-redshift galaxies are connected directly to nearby high-redshift quasars, violating Hubble’s Law. Several astronomers find that the redshifts of galaxies group into periodic levels, implying that the galaxies reside in discrete shells at periodic distances and velocities from Earth, also contradicting Hubble’s Law. Something in addition to velocity must cause galaxy redshift! This means that we cannot rely on Hubble’s Law to tell us how far away the galaxies are nor how fast they are moving away from us.
Most physicists believe that the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) comes from the “first light,” which presumably appeared 400,000 years after the Big Bang 14 billion years ago. To be reaching Earth now, the matter had to travel at about 35,000 times the speed of light to get 14 billion light-years from the Big Bang before it radiated the first light toward Earth. This is NOT believable!
If there were no Big Bang, there would have been no first light, and the CMBR would come from matter such as hydrogen distributed throughout the universe. If the universe were expanding as Hubble’s Law says, when our telescopes look in any single direction in the sky, the light from distant molecules would be redshifted more than the light from nearby molecules. However, the distributions of CMBR wavelength intensity follow the Planck blackbody thermal radiation distribution perfectly, meaning that there is no redshift in any given direction. The lack of CMBR redshift from all distances in a single direction implies that the universe is neither expanding nor contracting.
Consequently, there is no “Dark Energy,” Hubble’s Law is not valid, and the Big Bang is only fiction, as many scientists believe. This subject is covered in Chapter 3 of the book Uncommon Knowledge by Al McDowell.